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Graze On

Goats_in_landscape_management_at_German_Highway_A_59._Spielvogel_2013

Goats in landscape management at German Highway. Photo by Spielvogel licensed under creative commons by Wikipedia.

By Ellen Gawarkiewicz –

I have always learned that invasive species come into an area due to imbalances in the ecosystem, such as a lack of natural predators or loss of nutrient resources necessary for native vegetation. Yet, the only solutions I ever heard were very unnatural. We could spray chemically engineered herbicide over landscapes, bring in heavy machinery to destroy anything in its path, or personally rip all the unwanted plants out of the grown. So, what about a more natural method of removing invasive plants? Thankfully, they have arrived.

Goats are the natural predators of many common North American invasive plants and have been eating them for thousands of years. Goats have evolved naturally grazing on many of the troublesome invasives that are dealt with today, such as, kudzo from East Asia or Phragmites australis from Europe [1]. The goats are so efficient because the seeds of the plants are often crushed in the goats’ grinding mouths and multi-chambered stomachs [2]. A herd of 35 goats can consume roughly half an acre of thick vegetation in only 4 days! [3]

Machinery and herbicide removal often creates additional disturbances in ecosystems. Equipment may trample or remove native, sensitive species as it takes out invasive species and herbicides can contaminate water and soil. Herbicides can also be toxic for insects who live on or eat plants, and may cause cascading imbalances in the food chain. However, the goats are able to restrict their feeding and removal to specific problems areas with fences, without leaving harmful chemicals. Once one area is done, the fences are moved and the goats graze on [1].

I often struggle to pick a side when it comes to invasive species removal. Do we pull everything out, just to see them return? Or, do we let nature take its course and leave the invasive species there? What designates a species as “invasive”? How long does a species need to be in the area to be considered “native”? But, by using goats to control invasive species, balance is being brought back into the ecosystem and the species are removed without harming native plant or animal species. Besides, I’m sure the goats are happy with the decision; they are being paid to eat multiflora rose and bittersweet all day! [1]

Watch them work! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1iZ2JkJrnc#t=69

Mary Kate Lisi is a rising UVM junior Wildlife Biology and Environmental Science double major taking part in a undergraduate field naturalist pilot program this summer.

 

[1] http://www.vtinvasives.org/news/goats-take-notorious-invasive-species

[2] http://www.eco-goats.com/why-goats.shtml

[3] http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30583512

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